Topological Structure of LoRa and LoRaWAN Networks
The LoRaWAN network architecture is deployed in a star topology (same as the Zibgee), and each point acts like a paratrooper, communicating with each other when they are connected. Base stations transmit data between sensor nodes and network servers. The communication between sensor nodes and base stations is executed through wireless channels by using LoRa physical layer, while the connection between gateway and central server is processed through IP-based backbone network. The terminal node uses LoRa to transmit directly to all gateways in the range. The gateway uses IP to relay messages between the terminal device and the central network server.
Terminal nodes are usually embedded in various sensors with LoRa module to detect temperature, humidity, acceleration and so on.
LoRa transponder for signal transmission via LoRa wireless transmission method
Optional microcontroller (with on-board memory).
Sensors can be connected to separate Lora devices or embedded sensors that integrate chips into Lora modules.
The LoRa sensor transmits data to the LoRa gateway. LoRa gateway connects to the Internet through standard IP protocol, and transfers data received from LoRa embedded sensors to the internet, i.e. network, server or cloud.
Gateway devices are usually connected to the power supply. The gateway connects to the network server through standard IP, acts as a transparent bridge, and simply converts radio frequency data packets into IP data packets.
Network servers can be cloud-based platform solutions, such as through transmission clouds. The network server connects to the gateway and unloads the packet, then routes it to the relevant application. Network servers can be used for both upstream (i.e., sensor to application) communication and downstream (i.e., application to sensor) communication.
The Internet of Things network server has a router, proxy and processing program that processes packets from the LoRaWAN gateway.