The work principle of LoRaWAN

LoRaWa is an emerging protocol, LoRaWAN is a wireless connection network for data communication with the Internet. LoRaWan quickly stands out because it is well-known and customized for IoT (Internet of Things) applications, requiring remote and low-power connectivity to the Internet without the need for WiFi. LoRaWan is a good solution for sensors powered by remote battery or equipment with remote communication or telecommunications. Simply speaking, the parcel data is sent over long distances to the nearest, most available gateway when needed, this gateway forwards the packet to the server for storage, calculation or visualization.

To be more familiar with LoRaWAN, let's go back to LPWAN,the predecessor of LoRaWAN in 2009 started in France:

LPWAN is a wireless telecommunication wide area network, aiming to allow objects (connected objects) to communicate remotely at low bit rates, such as sensors that operate on batteries with low power requirements.

LPWAN supports less device network connectivity than standard home devices, compared to consumer mobile technology, LPWAN network supports more devices and better bi-directional capabilities within the large covering scope.

Networks such as WiFi and Bluetooth are better suitable for consumer IoT applications, but LPWAN is more versatile in industrial IoT, urban and commercial applications.

 

LPWAN is a cumulative network that includes LoRaWAN. Therefore, the two are not synonymous, but two separate networks. LPWAN first appears and then adopts several networks under it, each has its own unique historical growth experience. Some of the adopted networks include AlarmNet (later owned by Honeywell), 2G network and LoRaWAN, which was founded in 2014 by an organization called the LoRa Alliance and was one of the leading and favorite protocols for connecting devices.

 

The work principle of LoRaWAN:

The work principle of LoRaWAN

Use the above information map connected to the internet, the sensor is called the terminal - device. Whenever the sensor reads data, the device conditionally sends a signal (data packet) that the gateway captures data. Now the data on the gateway uses FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) to transfer data to the server as efficiently as possible, this process is called Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS). When a packet from a terminal device enters the circuit of the gateway, it enters "chirp" or symbol indicating the digital information. The chirp is then parsed into the frequency domain and the modulated signal is then demodulated for efficient data transmission.

 

After converting the input signal to the frequency domain, the LoRa hardware searches within the frequency band for other better frequency channels that can carry the signal. Once the gateway finds one, the entire process modulates the frequency of the input signal to make it more energy efficient, and then "shifts" the signal (and therefore the "S" in the FSK) to the channel for fast data transfer. Once the gateway finds one, the entire process modulates the frequency of the input signal to make it more energy efficient, and then "shifts" the signal ( therefore the "S" in the FSK) to the channel for fast data transmission.

Terminal devices and gateways constantly interact with each other so that data transmission can “jump” to other frequency channels that best fit the system's power, speed, duty ratio, and range limits. During this frequency modulation, other integrated circuits within the LoRa gateway perform other "improved" modulations, such as filtering out noise or jagged shapes that you see in the signal.

 

USRIOT’s LoRaWAN products include serial RS232 RS485 to LoRa converters, serial RS232 RS485 to LoRa converters(point to point), point-to-point modules, Ultra-low TTL to LoRa modules, LoRa gateways, LoRaWan TTL to LoRa modules.